Ketogenesis and COPD

Cai, B, Zhu, Y, et al. Effect of Supplementing a High-Fat, Low-Carbohydrate Enteral Formula in COPD Patients. Nutrition 19(3)229-32.

This was a study done on patients suffering from chronic, obstructive pulmonary disease.  their diets were supplemented with a high-fat, low-carbohydrate (CHO) nutritional supplement for three weeks.  The study demonstrated that pulmonary function in COPD patients can be significantly improved with meal replacement supplement as compared with the traditional high-CHO diet.

Ketogenesis and Obesity Related Disease

Tendler, D, Lin, S, et al. The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study. Dig Dis Sci 52(2)589-93.

This was a pilot study done on 5 patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a disease becoming increasing common as obesity rates rise.   It proved that six months of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet led to significant weight loss and histologic improvement of fatty liver disease.

 

Haimoto, H, Iwata, M, et al. Long-Term Effects of a Diet Loosely Restricting Carbohydrates on Hba1c Levels, Bmi and Tapering of Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Follow-up Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 79(2)350-6.

In this study two groups of type II diabetic patients were followed for two years.   One of the groups followed a conventional diet while the other group followed a carbohydrate restricted diet.   After the two years, HbA1c, BMI and cholesterol levels were significantly improved in the last group, while less medication was needed.

 

Ketogenesis and Cancer

Schroeder, U, Himpe, B, et al. Decline of Lactate in Tumor Tissue after Ketogenic Diet: In Vivo Microdialysis Study in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer. Nutr Cancer 65(6)843-9.

In tumor cells, pyruvate is converted to lactate at a higher rate compared to normal cells.  This rate of conversion is even higher in metastatic cells.  This study showed that a ketogenic diet lowers the rate of this conversion.  It suggests that a  ketogenic diet suppresses metabolic activity for cancer cells.

 

Klement, RJ and Sweeney, RA. Impact of a Ketogenic Diet Intervention During Radiotherapy on Body Composition: I. Initial Clinical Experience with Six Prospectively Studied Patients. BMC Res Notes 9(143. PMC4779584

This study supports the hypothesis that ketogenic diets administered as supportive measures during standard radio therapy are safe and might be helpful in preservation of muscle mass.

Ketogenesis and Neuro Protection

Arslan, N, Kose, E, et al. The Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Serum Selenium Levels in Patients with Intractable Epilepsy. Biol Trace Elem Res 178(1)1-6.

This study showed that continous following of high fat, low carb diet has a consequent drop in serum selimium levels.  Therefore it is advised that selinium is supplemented in the long term when following the diet.  this study was specifically daone on children suffering from epilepsy.

 

Choragiewicz, T, Zarnowska, I, et al. [Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of the Ketogenic Diet]. Przegl Lek 67(3)205-12.

This study  suggest that the ketogenic diet also has neuroprotective properties, which makes it a useful alternative therapeutic method in the modification of the natural history of the diseases related with neurodegeneration processes. 

 

Gumus, H, Bayram, AK, et al. The Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures, Cognitive Functions, and Other Neurological Disorders in Classical Phenotype of Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome. Neuropediatrics 46(5)313-20.

 This study showed that treatment with KD resulted in a marked improvement in seizures and cognitive functions of children suffering from epilepsy as a result of  glucose transporter protein 1 deficiency syndrome.  There were also improvement, although less striking on the other neurological disorders of the patients such as alertness, concentration, motivation and activity .

 

Kim, JA, Yoon, JR, et al. Efficacy of the Classic Ketogenic and the Modified Atkins Diets in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy. Epilepsia 57(1)51-8.

This study showed that a modified high protein diet had advantages with respect to better tolerability and fewer serious side effects.  this diet might be considered as the primary choice for the treatment of intractable epilepsy in children, but the classic ketogenic diet is more suitable as the first line of diet therapy in patients <2 years of age.

 

Sariego-Jamardo, A, Garcia-Cazorla, A, et al. Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Refractory Childhood Epilepsy: Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurotransmitters and Amino Acid Levels. Pediatr Neurol 53(5)422-6.

This study showed a 50% reduction in rate of epileptic seizures in children suffering from it.  Although another goal of the study was to determine the mechanism of protection from the ketogenic diet, it did not succeed in this. 

 

Herbert, MR and Buckley, JA. Autism and Dietary Therapy: Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Child Neurol 28(8)975-82.

This as a case study of a child with autism and epilepsy who, after limited response to other interventions following her regression into autism, was placed on a gluten-free, casein-free diet.  Over the course of several years following her initial diagnosis, the child's Childhood Autism Rating Scale score decreased from 49 to 17, representing a change from severe autism to nonautistic, and her intelligence quotient increased 70 points.  Also, 14 months after the initiation of the diet the child was essentially seizure free.  Secondary benefits included resolution of morbid obesity and improvement of cognitive and behavioral features.

 

Husain, AM, Yancy, WS, Jr., et al. Diet Therapy for Narcolepsy. Neurology 62(12)2300-2.

This study showed that patients with narcolepsy experienced modest improvements in daytime sleepiness on a ketogenic diet.

Honey and the Treatment of Night Time Cough and Sleeplessness

 

I. Paul, J. Beiler, A. McMonagle, M. Shaffer, L. Duda and C. Berlin. Effect of honey, dextromethorphan, and no treatment on nocturnal cough and sleep quality for coughing children and their parents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 161(12)1140-6. PMID: 18056558

This study compared honey, an allopathic remedy and no treatment, for symptomatic relief of nocturnal cough and sleep difficulty due to upper respiratory tract infection. Parents rated honey as the superior treatment.

 

 

M. A. Raeessi, J. Aslani, N. Raeessi, H. Gharaie, A. A. Karimi Zarchi and F. Raeessi. Honey plus coffee versus systemic steroid in the treatment of persistent post-infectious cough: a randomised controlled trial. Prim Care Respir J 22(3)325-30.

This study concluded that a combination of honey and coffee can be used as treatment of a cough that persists after a common cold or an upper respiratory tract infection.  It had better results than treatment with systemic steroids. Coughing can remain for more than three weeks or perhaps for many months.

Honey Relieves Menopausal Symptoms Including Sleeplessness:

 

K. Munstedt, B. Voss, U. Kullmer, U. Schneider and J. Hubner. Bee pollen and honey for the alleviation of hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms in breast cancer patients. Mol Clin Oncol 3(4)869-874. PMC4486804

This study provided evidence that honey and bee pollen may improve the menopausal symptoms of breast cancer patients on antihormonal treatment.  These symptoms included hot flushes, night sweats, pain during sexual intercourse, hair loss, forgetfulness, depression and sleeping disturbances.  these are common problems among breast cancer patients undergoing antihormonal treatment.

Honey in the Treatment of Sinus Infections:

V. S. Lee, I. M. Humphreys, P. L. Purcell and G. E. Davis. Manuka honey sinus irrigation for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized controlled trial. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 7(4)365-372.

 This study showed that irrigation with Manuka honey as a treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis is affective, even without the use of oral antibiotics and/or steroids.

Honey and the Treatment of Wounds and Burns:

G. Gethin and S. Cowman. Bacteriological changes in sloughy venous leg ulcers treated with manuka honey or hydrogel: an RCT. J Wound Care 17(6)241-4, 246-7.

This study found that manuka honey was 70% effective in eradicating MRSA chronic venous ulcers.  This is useful in prevention of infection as well as cross-infection.

 

K. I. Malik, M. A. Malik and A. Aslam. Honey compared with silver sulphadiazine in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness burns. Int Wound J 7(5)413-7.

Honey has been used for the treatment of wounds for ages.  this study showed the effectiveness of it in the management of burn injury.  Honey was more effective than silver to promote healing as well as  preventing infection in the wounds.

 

S. Natarajan, D. Williamson, J. Grey, K. G. Harding and R. A. Cooper. Healing of an MRSA-colonized, hydroxyurea-induced leg ulcer with honey. J Dermatolog Treat 12(1)33-6.

In this case study of an immunosuppressed individual with a leg ulcer with antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus it was concluded that honey is recognized to have antibacterial properties, and can also promote effective wound healing.  This is a modern problem, solved by a age-old therapy. 

 

A. R. Surahio, A. A. Khan, M. Farooq and I. Fatima. Role of honey in wound dressing in diabetic foot ulcer. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 26(3)304-6.

As the incidence of diabetes grows, more and more people face the possibility of leg amputation as a result of non-healing diabetic foot ulcers.  Use of honey significantly reduced the rate of amputation and improve wound healing when used for wound dressing in diabetics with foot ulcers.

Honey, Hemorrhoids and Anal Fissure

N. S. Al-Waili, K. S. Saloom, T. N. Al-Waili and A. N. Al-Waili. The safety and efficacy of a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax for the management of hemorrhoids and anal fissure: a pilot study.

ScientificWorldJournal 6(1998-2005. The researcher of this study found that a mixture of honey, olive oil, and beeswax is safe and clinically effective in the treatment of hemorrhoids and anal fissure, which paves the way for further randomized double blind studies.

 

Honey aids in the Control of Appetite and Hunger

D. E. Larson-Meyer, K. S. Willis, L. M. Willis, K. J. Austin, A. M. Hart, A. B. Breton and B. M. Alexander. Effect of honey versus sucrose on appetite, appetite-regulating hormones, and postmeal thermogenesis. J Am Coll Nutr 29(5)482-93.

This study showed that a breakfast including honey could suppress huger after consumption of a meal for a longer period of time compared to a breakfast containing only sucrose.

Honey Lowers Blood Lipids

N. S. Al-Waili. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose. J Med Food 7(1)100-7.

This study was done on people with high blood lipids and type 2 diabetes as well as healthy subjects.  It was found that honey reduces blood lipids, homocysteine, and CRP in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Honey compared with dextrose and sucrose caused higher insulin secretions and consequently lower elevation of blood glucose in diabetics.

Honey Repairs DNA

R. Alleva, N. Manzella, S. Gaetani, V. Ciarapica, M. Bracci, M. F. Caboni, F. Pasini, F. Monaco, M. Amati, B. Borghi and M. Tomasetti. Organic honey supplementation reverses pesticide-induced genotoxicity by modulating DNA damage response. Mol Nutr Food Res 60(10)2243-2255.

This study provides new insight regarding the effect of honey containing polyphenols on pesticide-induced DNA damage response.  Some plants have specific polyphenols which act as an anti-oxidant, thus protecting against DNA damage amongst other things.  Honey made form plant nectar also possesses these polyphenols.  Honey was tested on human cells damaged by pesticides.  It was found that honey enhanced DNA repair in these cells.

 

B. Hajizadeh Maleki, B. Tartibian, F. C. Mooren, K. Kruger, L. Z. FitzGerald and M. Chehrazi.  A randomized controlled trial examining the effects of 16 weeks of moderate-to-intensive cycling and honey supplementation on lymphocyte oxidative DNA damage and cytokine changes in male road cyclists. Cytokine 88(222-231.

Honey is known as an anti-oxidant.  This study showed that consumption of honey ninety minutes before each training session attenuated oxidative stress and DNA damage after exercise. 

Gastric Illnesses and Honey

M. A. Abdulrhman, M. A. Mekawy, M. M. Awadalla and A. H. Mohamed. Bee honey added to the oral rehydration solution in treatment of gastroenteritis in infants and children. J Med Food 13(3)605-9.

Honey is known for its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action.  Because gastroenteritis is an acute inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract this study looked at honey's effectiveness in the treatment of this condition.  It was found to speed up recovery time from this illness.

 

F. Hashem-Dabaghian, S. Agah, M. Taghavi-Shirazi and A. Ghobadi. Combination of Nigella sativa and Honey in Eradication of Gastric Helicobacter pylori Infection. Iran Red Crescent Med J 18(11)e23771. PMC5292131

Gastric Helicobacter pylori is extremely common worldwide.  It is a bacteria known to cause gastric ulcers and cancer in some people.  This study has shown that a daily consumption of honey and black cumin seeds kills the bacteria as well as serving as a anti-dyspeptic agent. 

Honey Enhances Immunity

T. Asama, T. H. Arima, T. Gomi, T. Keishi, H. Tani, Y. Kimura, T. Tatefuji and K. Hashimoto. Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 from honeybee products enhances IgA production in healthy adults. J Appl Microbiol 119(3)818-26.

This study shows one of the mechanisms how bee pollen could support immune health.  It does that by promoting immunoglobulin A (IgA) production which improves immune responsiveness.

 

J. Zidan, L. Shetver, A. Gershuny, A. Abzah, S. Tamam, M. Stein and E. Friedman. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia by special honey intake. Med Oncol 23(4)549-52.

Febrile neutropenia, a serious side effect of chemotherapy, reduces the ability of the body to fight infections.  Current allopathic treatment is very expensive and has side effects.  In this study honey was given to patients with a high risk to develop febrile neutropenia as a result of chemotherapy.  It was found that this inexpensive and safe treatment decreased the need for the more expensive treatments which has more side effects. 

Cannabis and Multiple Sclerosis

M. Maccarrone, R. Maldonado, M. Casas, T. Henze and D. Centonze. Cannabinoids therapeutic use: what is our current understanding following the introduction of THC, THC:CBD oromucosal spray and others? Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 10(4)443-55. PMID: 28276775

This article reviews the most important current (2017) data involving the eCB system in relation to human diseases, to reflect the present (based mainly on the most used prescription cannabinoid medicine, THC/CBD oromucosal spray) and potential future uses of cannabinoid-based therapy. It is noteworthy that THC/CBD oromucosal spray has been in clinical use for approximately five years in numerous countries world-wide for the management of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related moderate to severe resistant spasticity.  Clinical trials have already confirmed its efficacy and tolerability. Other diseases in which different cannabinoids are currently being investigated include various pain states, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and epilepsy.

 

C. Mannucci, M. Navarra, F. Calapai, E. Spagnolo, E. Busardò, R. Da Cas, F. Ippolito and G. Calapai. Neurological aspects of medical use of cannabidiol. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets PMID: 28412918

This was a review article on the potential role of Cannabidiol in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis andcerebral ischemia were examined.  The researchers have concluded that CBD can possibly produce beneficial effects in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis patients as well as patients affected by refractory epilepsy. 

Cannabis as Possible Treatment for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

C. Mannucci, M. Navarra, F. Calapai, E. Spagnolo, E. Busardò, R. Da Cas, F. Ippolito and G. Calapai. Neurological aspects of medical use of cannabidiol. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets PMID: 28412918

This was a review article on the potential role of Cannabidiol in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis andcerebral ischemia were examined.  The researchers have concluded that CBD can possibly produce beneficial effects in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis patients as well as patients affected by refractory epilepsy. 

Cannabis as a Possible Treatment for Anxiety and Substance Abuse

J. L. Lee, L. J. Bertoglio, F. S. Guimaraes and C. W. Stevenson. Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders. Br J Pharmacol

This is a review study on the anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol in general as well  its effects on various fear and drug memory processes.  The researchers claim that the understanding of how cannabidiol regulates emotion and emotional memory processing may eventually lead to its use as a treatment for anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders.

Cannabis and Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

C. Hasenoehrl, M. Storr and R. Schicho. Cannabinoids for treating inflammatory bowel diseases: where are we and where do we go? Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 11(4)329-37. PMID: 28276820

This article concludes that cannabinoids could be helpful for certain symptoms of IBD, but there is still a lack of clinical studies to prove efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoid-based medication for IBD patients, leaving medical professionals without evidence and guidelines.

 

A. Fabisiak and J. Fichna. Cannabinoids as gastrointestinal anti-inflammatory drugs. Neurogastroenterol Motil.Mar 29(3)PMID: 28239924

In this mini-review, they focus on the potential of the endocannabinoid system as a target for novel therapies to treat gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. The authors discuss the organization of the endocannabinoid signaling and present possible pharmacological sites in the endocannabinoid system and refer to recent clinical findings in the field.  Finally they point at the potential use of cannabinoids at low, non-psychoactive doses to counteract non-inflammatory pathological events in the GI tract.